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Basic Concepts of Political Science (Fundamentals of PS Degree)

Do you want to know what Political science is about and what is it aspects are? Or are you an aspirant of competitive exams like CSS or PMS? These core concepts of Political Science are intensively important for you…

Here, we begin with the definition of Political Science.

Political Science is the analytical study of the state, government, and its components including all the political activities taking place within its boundaries.

All the basic concepts of Political Science that you need to know for a comprehensive understanding of Political Science and will help you in your CSS journey are here:

Also, learn: How Politics changed the History of Pakistan

State (Most basic Concept of Political Science)

A state is an organized political community under a government within a specified territory.

State as basic concept of Political science

A state has a specific individuality as it is different from other states in terms of its laws, people, values, and government.

A state needs 4 components to be regarded as a state and these components include:

  1. Sovereignty
  2. Territory
  3. Government
  4. Population

Government (structure of Personals)

A government is a well-organized system within a state to ensure the successful operating of the state.

Government as basic concepts of political science

A standard government is generally divided into the following parts:

  1. Executive
  2. Judiciary
  3. Legislature

There are different forms of government known throughout the world which include:

  • Democratic
  • Monarch
  • Aristocracy
  • Republic
  • Communism and many more.


The area occupied by a particular state is known as its territory.

Territory as basic concepts of political science

The territory of a state could be small or vast but its existence is necessary for the existence of a state.

And this area falls under the sovereignty and jurisdiction of that state.

There are 3 types of Territory:

  1. Primary Territory where no one can enter without permission except a person and his belonging persons like a house of anyone.
  2. Secondary Territory where some persons with specific characters can enter like school or office of a company.
  3. Public Territory where anyone is allowed to enter like public parks.


Sovereignty is the possession of ultimate power and in the case of Political Science the supreme Authority of a state within its territory.

Sovereignty as basic concepts of political science

In different states, sovereignty is given to different beings. It is an essential character of a state because it allows the sovereign to use its power for making laws and issuing ordinances to keep peace in the state.

It is an important concept of political science as well as an important part of a state and a state cannot exist without a sovereign over it.

For Example,

In a Monarch, sovereignty is given to the king, who exercises this ability outside any restriction.

Characters of Sovereignty

  1. Inalienability
  2. Permanence
  3. Indivisibility
  4. Absoluteness
  5. Comprehensiveness
  6. Exclusiveness

In other words, sovereignty belongs to the one who owns the state.

Types of Sovereignty

Based on belonging and Powers Sovereignty is classified into the following types

External Sovereignty

The type of Sovereignty that ensures that the state is free from any external control and takes all its decision without any international interference is called external Sovereignty.

Internal Sovereignty

The power of a sovereign over its own territory is known as internal sovereignty. It is the exercising of power within the territory of a state to make laws and observe law and order with its own boundaries.

Internal Sovereignty is also divided into many types like:

  1. Titular
  2. Legal
  3. Political
  4. Popular
  5. Deo Facto and De Jure Sovereignty

Also visit: The Muslim Sovereigns of Mughal Empire


Justice means fair treatment to every person in society in accordance with LAW.

justice as basic concepts of political science

People living in a particular society deserve justice for them and it is provided by the Law institutions in that society like Police and justice courts.

For Example,

Equal distribution of rights and freedom for everyone.


Law is the rules and regulations set in a state to provide justice to the citizens of that society.

In a democratic state, the law is set by the assembly which consists of public electives, and is enforced by the institutions like Courts and Police.

There is a specific constitution of every democratic state which provides the basis for the law in that country. In Political Science, Law is also seen as an order of the sovereign.

For example,

In an Islamic state, Law is always in accordance with Islamic rules which provide the basis for the constitution.

Liberty (Freedom of Action)

The state of being free from restrictions in a society is known as Liberty.

A peaceful society demands liberty for its citizens to fulfill their needs and live their life as they desire. So, Liberty is doing something as someone pleases.

In Greek history, liberty or Freedom is related to being free from the slavery of a master.

Learn how Greek Mythology played its role in forming governmental institutes

As liberty is a necessary character of any political system, it is also a devastating thing at the same time. As so much of freedom is a cause of violence which can destroy the peace.


Equality is assuring that every individual of a society has an equal opportunity to make the most of their lifetime and expertise.

Equal distribution of opportunities and resources is a right of every citizen of the community and this duty is assigned to the government of that community.

Rights and Duties

Rights and duties are two contrary concepts and interrelated in a way that the rights of one person are the duty of another.

Everyone will get their rights if it ensures the fulfillment of their duties. In this way, the rights of one person are fulfilled as a duty of the other person.

Rights in society depend mainly on the social values of that community.

Human Rights

The rights that must be given to every human being and accepted by every community are known as human rights.

Human rights are usually given by the international community and it includes all the basic rights like freedom to speak and act.

These are the moral principles for every human to spend their life with freedom.


Political Science is an important field of social sciences that teaches us the diplomatic strategies to deal with other countries as well.

A political scientist studies different aspects and characters of state and government to devise ways for its successful functioning.

Learn How the Exports and Imports of a country affects its economy

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